PGY1 Pharmacy Residency Rotation Overviews

  

Acute Care Cardiology

Learning Experience: Acute Care Cardiology
Learning Experience Type: Acute Care
Preceptor: Steven Dunn, PharmD, BCPS

Description: The Coronary Care Unit (CCU) is a 10-bed intensive care unit and a 29 bed acute cardiology step-down unit.  This is a 5-week rotation that provides experience in the management of patients with ischemic cardiac disease, heart failure, arrhythmias, hyperlipidemia, and other cardiovascular related issues.  The following is a list of activities that are representative of the resident's responsibilities during the rotation:

  • Daily medical rounds with attending physicians, residents, nurses, and medical students
  • Daily patient profile review and identification of and resolution of any medication related issues
  • Daily review of laboratory data to monitor for appropriate dosing of drug therapy and evaluation of nutritional needs of the patient
  • Evaluation of all medical regimens for appropriateness and cost-effectiveness
  • Proactive involvement in selecting, modifying and monitoring drug therapy
  • Provision of medication information to physicians, nurses, and patients
  • Monitor for and report Adverse Drug Reactions
  • Documentation of pharmacist interventions and activities
  • Maintain an active presence in the unit throughout the day

 

Core content that will be covered by patient experiences, assigned readings, topic discussions, and/or case presentations includes but it not limited to the following:

  • Ventricular and Atrial arrhythmias
  • Acute Coronary Syndromes
  • Acute Heart Failure
  • Post PCI Management
  • Hyperlipidemia
  • Intra-aortic balloon pumps
  • Left Ventricular Assist Devices
  • Cardiac Transplantation Criteria
  • Hypertensive Urgencies and Emergencies

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Ambulatory Care

Learning Experience: Ambulatory Care
Learning Experience Type: Ambulatory Care
Preceptor: Donna White, RPh, CDE

Description: The Ambulatory Care rotation is a required five-week rotation for pharmacy practice residents. This rotation provides provision of pharmaceutical care for patients seen in the University Medical Associates (UMA) clinic. The UMA clinic is an internal medicine clinic composed of medical residents and attendings, nurses, nurse practitioners, social workers, respiratory therapists, and pharmacists serving a dual purpose of providing patient care and offering an ideal setting for resident outpatient education and training. The Pharmacy clinic provides chronic disease management and patient/ caregiver education including initiation of therapy, drug therapy monitoring and medication adjustment for diagnosed and treated patients referred by their primary care physician.

Core content which will be covered via patient experiences, discussions of reading materials, and/or case presentations including, but not limited to a review of:
   • Hypertension
   • Diabetes Mellitus
   • Hypercholesterolemia
   • Tobacco abuse
   • Motivational Interviewing/Assessment of Readiness To Learn

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Drug Information Service

Learning Experience: Drug Information
Learning Experience Type: Drug Information
Preceptors: Michelle McCarthy, PharmD, FASHP, Susan Cogut, PharmD, and Geralyn Waters, PharmD

Description: The Drug Information (DI) rotation is a required 5-week rotation in the PGY1-Pharmacy residency program. DI under Medication Management Use and Policy is responsible for providing comprehensive, unbiased, evidenced-based medication information, coordination of the activities of the Pharmacy and Therapeutics (P&T) Committee and its subcommittees, coordination of the medication use evaluation program and other quality improvement initiatives, management of the Formulary and non-Formulary requests, management of drug shortages, development of departmental/hospital policies/protocols to standardize practices and improve overall safety of the medication use process, education of staff regarding medication use policy guidelines and Formulary changes, and oversight of the pharmaceutical service representatives.

Core Content

   • Response to drug information requests
   • Drug information resource selection
   • Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee/ Formulary management
   • Principles of evidence-based medicine
   • Evaluation of biomedical literature
   • Drug approval process
   • Drug shortage management
   • Ethics in drug information practice
   • Accreditation agencies and processes
   • Relations with pharmaceutical industry representatives
   • Medication misadventure reporting process and policy

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Emergency Medicine

Learning Experience: Emergency Medicine
Learning Experience Type: Acute Care
Preceptor: Tina M. Grof, PharmD, BCPS

Description: The Emergency Medicine rotation is a five week acute care rotation for pharmacy residents. This rotation will consist of providing clinical pharmacy services to an emergency medicine service in the emergency department under the preceptorship of a clinical pharmacy specialist. The practice environment will require daily interactions with medical attendings, house staff, and mid-level practitioners, nursing staff, pharmacy staff and other healthcare professionals necessary to optimize pharmacotherapy for patients. In addition to monitoring and consulting on pharmacologic issues, the resident will also provide educational presentations to nursing, pharmacy and physician staff members.

Overall Rotation Goal
The major goal of this rotation is to provide a clinical pharmacy practice environment for the resident to apply the clinical, communication and teaching skills necessary to interact in a multidisciplinary emergency medicine environment.

Required Meetings
   • Daily patient discussions with the preceptor to present new patients and update existing patient status
   • Participate in weekly topic discussions with the preceptor
   • Attend all Department of Pharmacy meetings, conferences, and journal clubs
   • Attend weekly Emergency Medicine Conference
   • Wednesdays from 7am-12pm in EM Conference Room
   • Attend weekly Toxicology Conference
   • Friday Mornings 7:30am-12pm in Poison Control Center, JPA 1222, 4th Floor
   • Attend an Emergency Preparedness Meeting if scheduled during rotation
   • Attend a Chest Pain Center Committee Meeting if scheduled during rotation

Core Content

During this rotation, the resident will be expected become proficient through patient experiences; discussions of reading materials; and/or case presentations in the acute management for the following disease states and significant traumatic events as they present throughout the rotation. The resident is expected to read, evaluate, and present the assigned readings to the preceptor. (Note: Not all topics may be covered during the course of the rotation and some additional unique topics may replace those listed):

   • Basics to code response
   • Acute coronary syndromes (STEMI, NSTEMI, UA)
   • Hypertensive urgency vs emergency
   • Timeliness of antimicrobial initiation for infectious diseases (meningitis, CAP/HCAP, UTI, STD/PID, Sepsis)
   • Anticoagulation/warfarin reversal
   • Upper/Lower GI bleeds
   • Acute Asthma Exacerbation
   • Hyper- / hypoglycemia/DKA
   • Rapid Sequence Intubation
   • Acute ischemic stroke
   • Acute Psychosis
   • Overdose
   • Status epilepticus

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Family Medicine / Women's Health

Learning Experience: Family Medicine/ Obstetrics
Learning Experience Type: Acute Care
Preceptor: Julie J. Kelsey, PharmD

Description: The Family Medicine/ Obstetrics rotation is a five-week acute care rotation for pharmacy residents. This rotation allows the provision of evidence-based patient-centered care to patients admitted to the Obstetrics team and Family Medicine service (FM). The resident will become fully integrated into the FM team, round on a daily basis and focus on management of drug therapy in patients with multiple medical problems. The resident will also focus on management of drug therapy in pregnant women.

Core content which will be covered via patient experiences; discussions of reading materials; and/or case presentation, includes a review of:
   • Chronic disease management during pregnancy
   • Infections during pregnancy, labor, and postpartum
   • Contraception
   • Gynecologic infections
   • Gynecologic disorders
   • Pain management
   • Management of Common Infectious Diseases: Community Acquired Pneumonia, Skin and Soft tissue infections, Urinary Tract Infections, and Osteomyelitis
   • Chronic Renal Failure
   • Acute Renal Failure
   • Diabetes Mellitus and associated complications
   • Asthma - Acute care management
   • COPD - Acute care management

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General Pediatrics

Learning Experience: General Pediatrics
Learning Experience Type: Acute Care
Preceptor: Marcia Buck, PharmD, FCCP, FPPAG

Description: The general pediatrics rotation is five-week acute care rotation for pharmacy residents. The focus of this rotation is the provision of complete pharmaceutical care services to the 7 Acute (7 West and 7 Central) patient populations. These two units can house approximately 40 medical/surgical patients. The patients range in age from newborns to young adults. In addition to general medical cases, other admissions include transfers from the PICU and NICU and children receiving chemotherapy.

Core content which will be covered via patient care experiences, review and discussion of pertinent articles from the medical literature, and/or patient case presentations for the pediatric pharmacy team and will include the following:
   • Normal growth and development
   • Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes during childhood
   • Routine childhood immunizations
   • Empiric antibiotic selections for bacterial infections
   • Fluid and electrolyte therapy in children
   • Managing chronic illness in children and methods for improving adherence

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Hematology/Oncology

Learning Experience: Hematology Oncology
Learning Experience Type: Acute Care
Preceptors: Kathy DeGregory, PharmD, BCOP, Leslie Ward, PharmD, BCPS, and Nicole Watts, PharmD

Description: The acute care hematology/oncology (hem/onc) rotation is available to PGY1 residents as an elective rotation or as a required acute care rotation. Residents on rotation will have the opportunity to work with a multidisciplinary team to care for patients with hematologic disorders, oncologic emergencies, acute complications related to cancer, acute leukemia, aggressive lymphomas, and solid tumors requiring complicated or aggressive chemotherapy regimens.

Core content to be covered via patient experiences, discussion or reading materials, and/or case presentations include but are not limited to:
   • Tumor lysis syndrome
   • Neutropenic fever
   • Acute leukemia
   • Aggressive lymphomas
   • Stem cell transplantation
   • Hypercalcemia
   • Spinal cord compression
   • Other oncologic emergencies

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Infectious Diseases

Learning Experience: Adult Infectious Diseases
Learning Experience Type: Acute Care
Preceptors: Heather Cox Hall, PharmD, BCPS-AQID and Bryan Alexander, PharmD, BCPS, AAHIVP

Description: Infectious Diseases is a five-week rotation for pharmacy residents that focuses on the provision of pharmaceutical care to patients seen by the Adult Inpatient Infectious Diseases (ID) Consultation Service. Patients therefore span all services, inpatient locations, and levels of acuity. Assistance with Antimicrobial Stewardship Team (AST) efforts is expected occasionally as determined by the preceptor. Interested residents may spend a morning in the clinical microbiology laboratory upon request.

Core content which will be covered via patient experiences, discussions of reading materials, ID didactic lectures, and/or case presentations includes a review of:
   • Antimicrobial stewardship/principles of antimicrobial use
   • Bacterial mechanisms of resistance
   • Bone and joint infections
   • Catheter-related bloodstream infections
   • Endovascular infection
   • Infections in the immunocompromised host
   • Intraabdominal infections
   • Invasive fungal infections
   • Meningitis
   • Microbiological methods/susceptibility testing
   • Pneumonia (community-acquired, healthcare-associated, hospital-acquired, ventilator-associated)
   • Skin and skin structure infections

Individual antimicrobial classes will be addressed in conjunction with disease-state discussions and it is expected that residents will independently review relevant antimicrobial pharmacology in addition to assigned readings.

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Informatics

Learning Experience: Pharmacy Informatics
Learning Experience Type: Pharmacy Informatics 
Preceptor: Mark P. Chabot, RPh, MBA, MHA

Description:  The Pharmacy Informatics (PI) rotation is an elective 5-week rotation in the PGY1-Pharmacy residency program.  PI is responsible for implementing and maintaining the pharmacy technology systems in the hospital (both inpatient and outpatient).  The pharmacy technology systems currently deployed include Talyst®, C-II Safe®, Pyxis®, NurseLink®, Baxa® Pumps, Epic®, PCSI®, Parata®, WillCall®, QMatic®, and Counterpoint®.

Core Content:

  • Interaction between pharmacy technology systems and the importance of interfaces
  • Pyxis® maintenance
  • Epic® optimization
  • New medication addition process
  • Relations with pharmacy technology vendors
  • Hospital policies and procedures related to the use of pharmacy technology systems
  • Pharmacy workflow

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Internal Medicine

Learning Experience: Adult Internal Medicine
Learning Experience Type: Acute Care
Preceptor: Stacey Pattie, PharmD, BCPS

Description: The Internal Medicine rotation is a 5 week rotation in the PGY1 pharmacy residency program. This rotation allows the provision of evidence-based patient-centered care to patients admitted to a General Medicine Service (GM). The residents become fully integrated into the GM interdisciplinary team, round on a daily basis with a GM physician team and focus on management of drug therapy in patients with multiple medical problems.

Core content which will be covered via patient experiences; discussions of reading materials; and/or case presentation, includes a review of:

  • Management of Common Infectious Diseases: Community Acquired Pneumonia, Hospital Acquired Pneumonia, Skin and Soft tissue infections, Urinary Tract Infections, Bacteremia, Endocarditis, Meningitis, Osteomyelitis
  • Thromboembolic Disease
  • Chronic Renal Failure
  • Acute Renal Failure
  • Diabetes Mellitus and associated complications
  • Asthma - Acute care management
  • COPD - Acute care management
  • Adult Cystic Fibrosis pharmacotherapy management

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Medical Intensive Care Unit

Learning Experience: Medical Intensive Care Unit
Learning Experience Type: Critical Care
Preceptor: Rebecca Haynes Hockman, PharmD, BCPS

Description: The five week Medical Intensive Care Unit (MICU) rotation allows for the provision of pharmaceutical care to complex critically ill adults with multiple medical problems. The MICU is a 16-bed unit, and the MICU service averages 16-24 critically ill medicine patients. The MICU team is comprised of one attending (double board certified in pulmonary and critical care medicine), two pulmonary/critical care physician fellow, four second or third year medical residents, four medical interns, medical students, clinical pharmacy, bedside nursing, a nursing outcomes manager, and a clinical nutritionist. Subdivided into groups, the medical residents and students are separated into four sub-teams each having one intern, one upper level medical resident, and zero to one medical students. Exposure to a variety of disease states and pharmacotherapy management experiences occurs during the rotation. The pharmacy practice resident begins by covering approximately 8-10 patients, and works to increase patient volume throughout the rotation. The resident must assume responsibility and accountability for all pharmacotherapy management issues for their assigned patients.

Core content which will be covered via patient experiences, assigned reading material, discussions of reading materials, and/or case presentations includes a review of:
Hemodynamic support using inotropic/vasoactive agents
   • ICU analgesia, sedation, and neuromuscular blockade
   • Pharmacokinetics in critically ill patients
   • Sepsis/septic shock/systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS)
   • Multiple organ failure and oxygen delivery in critically ill patients
   • Fluid and electrolyte balance/replacement in critically ill patients
   • Acute renal failure/uremic bleeding/acid-base disturbances
   • Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)
   • Variety of infectious diseases (a few examples- Catheter-Related Blood Stream Infections, Hospital and Ventilator Associated Pneumonia, Community-Acquired Pneumonia, etc.)
   • Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
   • Acute alcohol withdrawal
   • Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)
   • Hypertensive emergency
   • Acute gastrointestinal bleeding
   • Acute COPD exacerbation
   • Acute overdoses ( tricyclic antidepressants, acetaminophen, miscellaneous)
   • ICU prophylaxis issues: Gastrointestinal stress ulcer prophylaxis, venous thrombosis prophylaxis

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Medical Toxicology

Learning Experience: Medical Toxicology
Learning Experience Type: Acute Care
Preceptor: Christopher P. Holstege, MD

Description: The Medical Toxicology program provides a 24/7/365 clinical medical service that provides care for poisoned patients and is comprised of an inpatient consultation service, outpatient clinic service, a phone consultation service, and a telemedicine service.  The current team covers the University of Virginia Health System and coordinates the care of patients at 49 other hospitals in Virginia.  Over 500 patients each year are managed on site at the University of Virginia by this service, with the majority critically injured by various poisonings.  Another ~2,000 patients are managed at others hospitals through phone and telemedicine consultation through the Blue Ridge Poison Center which covers a population of 3 million and receives ~35,000 total calls per year.

Core Content which will be covered includes the following through direct patient care and didactics:

  • Appropriate initial care of poisoned patients.
  • Ability to diagnose various toxic syndromes (e.g., anticholinergic, sympathomimetic, opioid, cholinergic, serotonergic, and withdrawal states).
  • Management of specific poisonings, including the proper use of antidotes. These will include prescription drugs, over-the-counter drugs, herbal products, drugs of abuse, natural toxins, occupational chemicals, chemical warfare agents and household products.
  • Poison center role in the public and professional arenas.

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Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

Learning Experience: Neonatal Intensive Care (NICU)
Learning Experience Type: Critical Care
Preceptor: Marcia Buck, PharmD, FCCP, FPPAG

Description: The Neonatal Intensive Care Unit rotation is a five-week critical care rotation for pharmacy residents. The focus of this rotation is the provision of complete pharmaceutical care services to the NICU patient population. The NICU is a 45-bed unit. The patients include both premature infants and term babies with underlying disease. The NICU is involved in several investigational drug studies and is capable of providing many new therapies, including extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and inhaled nitric oxide.

Core content which will be covered via patient care experiences, review and discussion of pertinent articles from the medical literature, and/or patient case presentations for the pediatric pharmacy team and will include the following:
   • Growth and development
   • Neonatal pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic differences
   • Management of neonatal sepsis/meningitis; empiric antibiotic selection
   • Early initiation of nutritional support
   • Treatment of apnea of prematurity
   • Use of sedatives and analgesics in the newborn

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Neurosciences Intensive Care Unit

Learning Experience: Neurosciences Intensive Care Unit
Learning Experience Type: Critical Care
Preceptor: Kathleen Bledsoe, PharmD, BCPS

Description: The Nerancy Neuro Intensive Care Unit (NNICU) rotation provides a five-week experience in critical care of neurological and neurosurgical patients. The NNICU is a 12-bed unit which provides care for critically ill neurosurgical, neurology, and occasionally, otolaryngology/head & neck surgery patients.

Core content which will be covered via patient experiences, discussions of reading materials, and/or case presentations includes a review of:
   • Cerebrovascular disorders
   • Subarachnoid hemorrhage
   • Central nervous system (CNS) infections
   • Electrolyte disorders of CNS origin
   • Myasthenia gravis and myasthenic crisis
   • Guillian-Barre syndrome
   • Death by neurologic criteria
   • Spinal cord injury
   • Traumatic brain injury

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Pediatric Intensive Care Unit

Learning Experience: Pediatric Intensive Care (PICU)
Learning Experience Type: Critical Care
Preceptor: Marcia Buck, PharmD, FCCP, FPPAG

Description: The Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) rotation is a five-week critical care rotation for pharmacy residents. The focus of this rotation is the provision of complete pharmaceutical care services to the PICU patient population. The PICU is a 14 bed medical/surgical tertiary care unit. The patients range in age from newborns to young adults. In addition to trauma and general medical cases, the most frequent post-operative admissions are for neurosurgical procedures, open heart surgery, orthopedic surgery, or solid organ transplantation. The PICU is also capable of providing many new and investigational therapies, including extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and inhaled nitric oxide.

Core content which will be covered via patient care experiences, review and discussion of pertinent articles from the medical literature, and/or patient case presentations for the pediatric pharmacy team and will include the following:
   • Management of the pediatric trauma patient
   • Post-operative care in pediatric patients
   • Management of septic shock in children
   • Fluid and electrolyte therapy in the growing child
   • Management of seizures in children
   • Use of sedatives, analgesics, and neuromuscular blocking agents in the critically ill child

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Practice Management

Learning Experience: Practice Management
Learning Experience Type: Administration
Preceptors: Rafael Saenz, PharmD, MS; Stephanie Mallow-Corbett, PharmD; Michelle McCarthy, PharmD, FASHP; Steve Miller, RPh; and Doug Paige, RPh

Description: The practice management rotation is a required 5 week rotation in the PGY1- Pharmacy residency program. The resident will spend time with various managers and supervisors in the department, attend and participate in departmental and institutional leadership meetings, and participate in the daily operations of the department of pharmacy. The resident will be assigned a minimum of one project by the primary rotation preceptor. Projects may include, but are not limited to, budgeting, benchmarking, documentation of workload indicators, quality improvement, drug distribution systems, or emerging automation.

Core Content will include:
   • Supply Chain Management
   • Principles of Financial Management
   • Medication Use Systems
   • Human Resources
   • Information Technology and Automation
   • Regulatory, Accreditation and Legal Requirements
   • Principles of Leadership
   • ASHP Best Practices, including the 2015 Initiative

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Surgical - Trauma Intensive Care Unit

Learning Experience: Surgical-Trauma Intensive Care Unit (STICU)
Learning Experience Type: Critical Care
Preceptor: David Volles, PharmD, BCPS

Description: The Surgical - Trauma Intensive Care Unit (STICU) rotation is a five week surgery / critical care rotation for pharmacy residents. Pharmaceutical care is provided for those patients in the STICU, which is a 16 bed unit for critically ill general surgery, solid organ transplant, burn injury, and trauma patients. The pharmacy resident would make rounds with the STICU team which generally consists of an attending physician, 3 physician housestaff residents, respiratory therapists, and nurses. The resident must devise strategies for accomplishing the required activities in a limited time frame while also balancing the other resident responsibilities.

Core content which will be covered via patient experiences, discussions of reading materials, and/or case presentations includes a review of:

   • Post-operative infectious complications
   • Venous thrombosis prophylaxis
   • Gastrointestinal stress ulcer prophylaxis
   • Glycemic control in the intensive care unit
   • ICU analgesia, sedation, and neuromuscular blockade
   • Cardiovascular monitoring parameters when using inotropes
   • Sepsis and inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS)
   • Shock and related syndromes
   • Nutritional support for critically ill surgery patients
   • Pharmacokinetics in critically ill patients
   • Fluid balance and acid / base disorders
   • Fistulas and Ileus
   • Burns
   • Anemia of critical illness

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Thoracic Cardiovascular
Post Operative Unit

Learning Experience: Thoracic-Cardiovascular Surgery
Learning Experience Type: Critical Care
Preceptor: Jefferson M. Sesler, PharmD, BCPS

Description: The Thoracic-Cardiovascular Surgery rotation is a 5 week critical care rotation for PGY1 pharmacy residents. This rotation provides pharmaceutical care for those patients in the Thoracic Cardiovascular Postoperative (TCVPO) ICU as well as those patients on 4 West (30-bed acute care/intermediate care surgical unit). TCVPO is a 12-bed postoperative unit providing care to cardiac, thoracic and vascular surgery patients. The residents can choose to follow patients on either the cardiac, thoracic, or vascular surgery service. Residents will round early on a daily basis as part of multidisciplinary team lead by a surgical fellow. Pharmacotherapeutic care will focus on a variety of postoperative critical care issues.

Core Content which will be covered via patient experiences; discussions of reading materials; and/or case presentation, includes a review of:
   • Atrial arrhythmias management
   • Cardiovascular hemodynamic monitoring (including inotropic/vasoactive agents)
   • Fluid resuscitation in the TCV surgery patient
   • Gastrointestinal stress ulcer prophylaxis
   • Heart and Lung transplantation management
   • Hypertensive Emergencies
   • ICU analgesia, sedation and neuromuscular blockade
   • Nutritional support for the TCV patient
   • Postoperative nausea and vomiting
   • Management and follow-up of prosthetic heart valves
   • Management of postoperative infectious complications
Hospital Acquired Pneumonia, Medistinal Infections, Sternal Wound Infections, Skin and Soft Tissue Infections, Urinary Tract Infections, Bacteremia, Endocarditis, LVAD infections
   • Pharmacokinetics in critically ill patients

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Transplant Surgery Service

Learning Experience: Transplant Surgery Service
Learning Experience Type:  Acute Care
Preceptor: Winston Ally, PharmD, BCPS

Description: The Transplant Surgery rotation is a five-week surgery/critical care rotation for pharmacy practice residents.  This rotation provides pharmaceutical care for those patients in the SICU for immediate postoperative care and the transplant unit for preparation for discharge.  The Transplant Surgery Service performs surgery and long term care for adult and pediatric liver, kidney and pancreas recipients.  An extensive research program is associated with the Transplant Surgery Service to learn more of the pharmacology of transplant immunosuppression and to provide cost effective therapy to transplant recipients.  The complete spectrum of pharmaceutical care services are experienced during the rotation including:

  • Patient profile review with problem medication order identification and resolution
  • Enforcement of transplant service policies to initiate / discontinue standard medical therapies
  • Assistance with medication order entry, order review and order clarification
  • Aid patient enrollment into and monitoring on investigational drug protocols
  • Participation in patient education program and discharge planning process
  • Rounding with Transplant Surgery team
  • Provision of pharmacokinetic and nutritional support consults
  • Interaction with nurses, physicians, and nutritional support specialists
  • Coordination of distribution problems not resolved by in-patient pharmacy

Completion of core content will be achieved via patient experiences, discussions of reading materials, and/or case presentations to include:

  • Surgical techniques of organ transplantation
  • Medical and surgical complications of organ transplantation
  • Techniques of immunosuppression
  • Identification and treatment of rejection
  • Post-operative infectious complications
  • Nutritional support for critically ill transplant patients
  • Pharmacokinetic analysis in unstable / dynamic patients
  • Fluid balance and fluid replacement in surgical patients

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